ENCATC CONGRESS 2018 > Abstracts

PART I. SESSION N°1 ABSTRACTS – From cultural heritage to heritage communities – Cultural and managerial transformations

Local creative networks and cultural democracy

Author: Andrew Ormston, Drew Wylie Projects, United Kingdom

A review of local creative networks in Scotland was carried out in the latter part of 2017 and 2018. The scope of the work included both cultural and creative networks, and both formal and informal organisations. An initial mapping and directory of the networks provided a basis for devising a typology that could be useful to policy makers and key actors in the creative sector. An electronic survey was issued to capture the key characteristics, aims, structure and scope of local creative networks. It also enquired about the relationship between the network and other agencies and funders. This was followed up with a round of stakeholder interviews, including network leaders, policy makers, local authorities, and agencies. The research also looked at best practice in other sectors, including social enterprise, and in other countries. The review’s conclusions were situated in the context of Scottish Government legislative developments pursuing community empowerment, planning, participatory budgeting and community asset transfer. They were also considered in relation to Scotland’s emerging cultural strategy. The paper will draw out the key learning points and challenges arising from the research. Local creative networks are almost all uniquely configured and transform at a rapid pace to respond to members priorities or external challenges. However, they offer wide geo-demographic coverage in a country where the urban / rural strategic conundrum for resourcing is very pronounced. They can also respond to change more rapidly than traditional institutions and organisations, and involve many of the micro-businesses and freelance cultural and creative practitioners that other platforms don’t reach. While there is interest at local, regional and national level in working more strategically with local creative networks, the paper suggests that for this to succeed there will need to be change in Scotland’s cultural infrastructure and institutions.


How peri-urban areas contribute to the Creative Economy. Following up on the strategic development of the creative industries’ ecosystem in South Tyrol (Italy).

Authors: Eleonora Psenner, Eurac Research, Italy; Valentina Cattivell, Eurac Research, Italy; Elisa Ravazzoli, Eurac Research, Italy

As several scholars argue, the “urban climate”, as defined by Florida (2002) as the set of innovation, exchange of ideas and events, tends to decrease away from the city. Supposedly, peri-urban and rural areas cannot offer as many cultural amenities that stimulate creative expression, contamination and exchange of ideas or the opportunity to do networking. Thus, areas outside the urban setting appear less attractive for the “creative class”. However, new trends show an increase of interest in semi-rural areas and even remote or abandoned sites, which enforce the flourishing of creative hubs. The aim of this paper is to test Florida’s hypothesis of creative class in the peri-urban area of Bolzano/Bozen (Italy) and to shed light on current challenges and attempts at the regional cultural policy level. The paper tackles the concepts of creative economy and creative class and gives further insights to the ongoing debate about creative industries’ impact on innovation and regional development. The paper presents preliminary findings of qualitative analyses concerning the elaboration of a mid-term strategy for the enforcement of the local ecosystem of creative industries based on the cooperation with local stakeholders and representatives of the “creative community” of South Tyrol including a multi-level and cross-sectoral investigation. Florida, R., 2002. The rise of the Creative Class. New York: Basic Books. Florida, R., 2004. Cities and the Creative Class. London: Routledge.


Landscape as a common good. Tools for its protection and enhancement in a legal and managerial perspective

Authors: Mara Cerquetti, University of Macerata, Carmen Vitale, University of Macerata, Department of Education, Cultural Heritage and Tourism, Italy; and Carmen Vitale, University of Macerata, Department of Education, Cultural Heritage and Tourism, Italy

The European Landscape Convention (2000) has finally recognized the open, dynamic and relational nature of landscape as an area “whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors” (art. 1). In Italy, the Code for Cultural Heritage and Landscape adopted this approach in 2004, defining landscape as a complex value, which includes the need of citizens to establish a sensitive relationship with the territory, to benefit from this relationship and to participate in the definition of its qualitative features. According to this perspective, all the interests underlying the landscape take a central role. Despite the increasing awareness of the wide conceptual relevance of landscape, tools for its protection and enhancement are still partially inadequate – i.e. landscape and urban planning. Meanwhile, in 2001, the principle of vertical and horizontal subsidiarity was introduced by the Constitutional Reform (art. 118). Moreover, due to scant financial resources, public administrations have had difficulty in facing public needs efficiently, e.g. the fruition of places as an expression of citizenship rights. As a consequence, legal doctrine has given an increasing attention to the category of common goods and the notion of shared administration, which is about the definition of tools and rules assigning a central role to citizens and private organizations in the management of common goods. In this context, the present paper aims both at verifying the possible relationship and convergence between landscape and common goods and their legal and managerial implications. Particularly, the interchangeability of tools typified by the legislator for the landscape and tested and codified for common goods according to a bottom-up approach is discussed. First, the research analyses common goods as a complex concept, intertwining different disciplinary perspectives, i.e. philosophy, economics and political science, and entailing the involvement of communities in their management. This theoretical overview is followed by a focus on the Italian legal framework on cultural heritage and landscape. After analysing the article 9 of the Italian Constitutional Law as a fundamental premise for defining the right to landscape as a citizenship right, thus as a tool for democracy, equality and freedom, the meaning of enhancement as an “atypical” function is discussed (Code for Cultural Heritage and Landscape, artt. 6 and 134). In order to understand the common and general destination of common goods and the main tools of shared administration (e.g. municipal regulations, pacts and conventions, tools for urban regeneration, etc.), the juridical categories provided by the doctrine for different types of common goods are adopted, thus exceeding the public-private dichotomy of the ownership of a good and discussing their effectiveness, limitations and possible development. In the second part, a case study is examined, focusing on the regeneration of a disused quarry in Sant’Arcangelo di Romagna (RM), where the artists’ association “Mutoid Waste Company” has created a theme park with works of art made using recycled materials. Finally, the applicability of the model to other cases and its effects on general categories are evaluated. One of the main applications of the theory of landscape as a common good could refer to historical centres or parts of them (e.g. a street or a square), especially in inland areas, which have undergone a process of persistent marginalisation and depopulation and are exposed to the risk of complete abandonment.


Instrumentality to which end? A case study on the instrumentalization of the German cultural policies

Author: Ruirui Zhou, University of Hamburg, Germany

This paper makes an elementary study on the inter-effect of the mix of the transformative power of culture and the mix of policy aims in analyzing cultural policy. Cultural policy is here conceptualized as a public policy to achieve public effective outcomes – and is therefore instrumental. It is thus invented in the modern age as an attempt of the state to regulate the system world in accordance with the regulation of the life world. A dilemma emerges that on the one side, culture or cultural activities in the “common notion” should be free, they are, on the other side, bound to be measured and valued on their “transformative power” as long as they are subject to political preference, public expenditure and market selection. Researches analyzing cultural policy in analog to social policies argue that it needs public expenditure, centralizing on the battlefield between the market and the public good. This paper argues further that the variety of the instrumentality of cultural policy derives from the ambiguity of the definitive “transformative power of culture” which is to be “supportive” for non-cultural policy ambitions. In this sense, cultural policy is meant to develop a “instrumentality-mix” as a mix of policy-aims. This paper takes German cultural policy as a study case and traces how the “transformative power of culture”-mix in discourse changes and how this contributes to the construction of the instrumentality-mix of cultural policy. It is expected to prove the attribution of the construction of the instrumentality-mix of cultural policy to the composition of the transformative power of culture – mix. It is thereby suggested through this paper that the social model thesis is not sufficient to explain cultural policy, but that the normative expectation on culture in discourse should also be taken into account.


PART I, SESSION N°2 ABSTRACTS – Post-colonial and neo-colonial practices in heritage making, management, tourism, and culture-led development programmes

Malta’s colonial heritage in cultural and tourism management: A critical assessment of post-colonial and neo-colonial policies and practices

Author: Karsten Xuereb, University of Malta, Superintendence of Cultural Heritage, Malta

Aim, context & objectives: The research assesses the degree of post-colonial and neo-colonial practices in Malta in managing tourism and cultural heritage, mainstays of the local cultural industries and economy in general. In preparation for EU accession in 2004 Malta launched a raft of legal and administrative measures to intensify and professionalise the impact of tourism on culture and heritage through public fora, national strategies, EU funds, support to the private sector and capacity building of the public one. Early promising efforts, as well as later opportunities, to develop Maltese contributions to European discourse on tourism, culture and heritage have been compromised. This will be argued in light of Malta hosting the World Summit for Culture (2016), the Presidency of the Council of the EU (2017) and the European Capital of Culture (2018), and the European Year of Cultural Heritage. • Theoretical framework informing the research: Following my PhD at the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona) in post-colonial Mediterranean cultural relations (2012), my approach is informed by Gramscian and Foucauldian perspectives on relations between knowledge and governmentality, and reflections by Edward Said and Tony Bennett on power relations in culture related to colonial frameworks. • Methodological approach: Critical observations stem from my current management position at the Superintendence of Cultural Heritage (Malta), as a researcher and academic at the Institute of Tourism, Travel and Culture at the University of Malta and my former experience as executive director of preparations for the European Capital of Culture in Malta (2011-2017) and culture attaché in Brussels (2006-2011). • Summary of the main or expected results and conclusions: It will be argued that a combination of mismanagement, political malaise and burgeoning commercial interests tied to infrastructural and services development have eroded investment in thorough research and practice with which to value intangible cultural heritage in Malta. Furthermore, a deficit in inspired, competent and moral leadership and the regular undermining of earlier important developments are risking any hopeful legacy.


The role of ethical hiring practices in decolonizing the museum

Authors: Rend Beiruti, Avesta Group, United Arab Emirates; and Ahmed Yacout, Avesta Group, United Arab Emirates

In light of the emerging arts and culture market in the GCC, the question of decolonizing cultural practices and developments becomes especially urgent. How can an international firm make use of this great moment of flux as an opportunity to create a paradigm shift and reframe issues of domination and seclusion in cultural heritage around collaboration and nurturing indigenous networks? This study finds that international firms operating in the GCC deal with power structures on two levels. Firstly, international firms often risk imposing their own cultural notions on their clients and their cultural initiatives. Secondly, they risk contributing to questionable cultural initiatives that contribute to inequalities and alienate many segments of the host societies by working with governmental entities that may prioritize certain agendas over those of local, cultural ecosystems. Hiring practices can offer a channel through which to ‘decolonize’ the cultural planning field. As an international cultural planner working with international clients, we developed the foundation for sustainable hiring practices that not only satisfy our clientele, but also build capacity of their communities. The study looks to examine the impact of hiring practices in creating a more equitable and sustainable ecosystem in cultural development programmes in GCC countries.


There is no such thing as European values

Author: Michael Wimmer, EDUCULT, Institute for Cultural Policy and Cultural Management, Austria

The paper is about the dramatic change of the political context in which cultural policy and so cultural policy education takes place. When during the last years mainly the integrative power of “Culture” was emphasised it now becomes obvious that new political forces are able to make use also of the segregative implications of “Culture” by that producing confrontation and inequality of different social groups. There is a particular hypocrisy of the European integration project proclaiming on one hand particular European values while continuing unequal power relations inside and outside the continent. In this context the “culturalisation” of increasing social conflict is of particular interest. The paper reflects authors like Francois Jullien or Archille Mbembe, who put in doubt naïve concepts of “cultural identity” incorporated in cultural heritage. According the statement of Mbembe “Who is arguing for cultural identity is destroying democracy” he pleas for a new understanding of values which are not European or African but global or they are none. In terms of “Culture” Mbembe argues for an attitude of “Cultural Sharing” (actually in the discussion of the unclear assignment of the Humboldt Forum in Berlin) which would overcome traditional ideas of belonging which can be – as we actually see – politically abused. This “Culture of Sharing” goes together with a characteristic of The Arts which cannot be narrowed to a particular geographic, ethnic, religious or cultural (in the traditional meaning) context but are an offer for transnational exchange which has to find appreciation on a more or less global market. Methodological Approach The paper relies on the outcomes of a European symposium “Changing Politics – Changing Cultures” in April 2018; Literature research, qualitative interviews and roundtables with students with different geographic, ethnic and cultural background of the University of applied Arts in Vienna Summary of the main or expected results The paper intends to contribute to the reflection of the fundamental changes of the parameters in which cultural policy and cultural policy education takes place (in Europe and elsewhere). In trying so it analysis the new relationship between the field of arts and culture and its political environment which is actually going to be reconstructed in the direction of renationalisation, authoritarism and the application of cultural exclusion strategies. In particular it criticises the misleading search of something like a European “Culture” (Unity in diversity”) which produces inevitably a wrong opposite is it in terms of another “Cultures” (Huntington), is it in terms of other “Values” or is it in terms of another political constitutions outside Europe. The negative consequences are about more division in a globally connected world, a trend cultural policy should oppose.


Industrial heritage led Community Regeneration. A New Approach to understanding and Intervention on Industrial Heritage in Post-Socialist Europe.

Authors: Cristina-Lucia Sucala, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom

Europe has witnessed over the five decades a major process of de-industrialisation. There has been little academic attention focused on industrial heritage in the former socialist states. The central aim of this research is to examine the role of industrial heritage in the regeneration of local communities in post-socialist economies. Its objectives are to examine the practices of community regeneration in the Romanian context and to explore the relationships between communities, their past and present industrial identities and how these relationships manifest themselves in the regeneration of place. According to Edwards and Lawrence (2000), Romania had its own brand of socialism, expressed as an intensive process of industrialization. The research is discussing industrial heritage position in Romanian heritage discourse and its relations with the former mining communities. To explore these issues, the research is focusing on the case study of the community of Petrila, Romania, a former colliery and allegedly the oldest pit in the coal basin of the Jiu Valley where the researcher is one of the founders of Petrila Start-Up workshops. The research involves studying of the archives related to the mine’s history, its evolution and deindustrialization, writings and journals of that time and running in-depth interviews of actors involved in the de-industrialisation process. Further, through fieldwork analysis, interviews and focus groups with members of the community I will explore the stakeholders involved today, their interests, the possible conflicts or outcomes, their reaction to this heritage, their complex and ambivalent range of feelings. The method will essentially have a qualitative approach, focusing on the community’s responses, behaviours and reflections on their industrial past, filtered through their industrial heritage. The expected result of this research is a clear image of the shift towards community involvement and community regeneration and the influence on heritage management in the post socialist context.


PART I. SESSION N°3 ABSTRACTS – Understanding heritage as a phenomenon

Beyond the classical mind-set: The challenge of incorporating diverse musical cultures in Higher Music Education

Author: Stefan Gies, AEC (Association Européenne des Conservatoires, Académies de Musique et Musikhochschulen) and the AEC Working Groups on Diversity and Learning&Teaching, Belgium

This paper presentation emerged from the Swedish-Norwegian-German research project DAPHME, which started in 2015 and aims to examine the professional self-image of teachers at HMEIs. The key questions are: What does “academic” mean in the context of an artistic performance study program? What understanding of professionalism and professionalisation stands behind the raison d’être of a HMEI? Against the background of some interim results of the project, this paper asks for the explicit or implicit normative preconditions which need to be met in order to enable the inclusion of diverse musical cultures into the canon of disciplines and genres offered at a HMEI. The research carried out within the DAPHME project draws on a comparative study investigating how processes of academisation affect performing musician programmes across Europe. The proposed presentation stresses notions of competence, knowledge and knowledge transfer which are common in different musical cultures and genres. Different understandings of tradition and of how to pass on these traditions in the framework of diverse education policies as well as sociocultural settings are investigated. The empirical basis are guided interviews and written documents, such as policy papers, curricula, higher education acts, etc. The core methodology these investigations are based on, is critical discourse analysis. Available data reveal that given organisational structures of a European HMEIs are exclusive in a double sense. Firstly, because they are based on a deliberate distinction between high and low culture, which has its roots in the 19th century bourgeois understanding of art. Secondly, because they are tied to a particular educational setting which is closely linked to the habits and needs of precisely this bourgeois musical culture and thus – according to the author’s working hypothesis – forces other cultural approaches either to adapt to this educational setting or to renounce having access to institutionalised (higher) education.


Heritage, Culture, and the Securitization Paradigm

Authors: Asko Kauppinen, Malmö University, Sweden and Berndt Clavier, Malmö University, Sweden

This paper looks at the Swedish projects running in the European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018 and the understanding of heritage that is mediated through this selection. While some heritage projects and events canvass very particular local/national topics (a musical interpretation of a rune stone in a village/a national day for window restoration), the majority of the issues and practices are bound only by some sense of local/national border crossed and challenged (Guide to Ingmar Bergman’s Skåne/Breaking Bread-“newswedish” bread and cakes). However, the challenging of borders in these projects and events is extremely fragmentary and even arbitrary. The paper proposes that these heritage projects should be seen as a symptom of a larger change in the field of cultural policy and management. Drawing from Foucauldian framework of governmentalization, and the framework of securitization studies, the paper claims that the post-colonial and neo-colonial practices of culture and heritage making to combat inequalities and asymmetrical power distribution (understood as exposing and addressing those asymmetries and inequalities) are better understood within the logic of securitization. Cultural securitization paradigm, while attempting to make possible the “flow” of culture and grass-root production of culture in expedient niches of population and territory, nevertheless intensifies the border work of what the paper calls a “securitization archipelago of culture.” In this archipelago, coordinated policy initiatives call upon culture and heritage, above all, to learn about identified threats that are general in pattern, yet highly localised in scope: who are involved, how do they think, what forms of action can engage them, what further resources can be called upon to securitize these territories and populations.


Istanbul biennal: a cultural identification arena?

Author: Melek Feride Çelik, PhD, Art Lecturer, Instructor and Project Coordinator, Freelance, Turkey

Gellner describes culture as the necessary shared medium, the life blood or rather the minimal shared atmosphere, within which alone the members of the society can breath and survive and produce. Cultural identity can be understood as the experience, enactment and negotiation of dynamic social identifications by the group members within particular settings. But many recent arguments in the politics of entitlement often appeal to the poetics of idealized cultural identity without fully acknowledging the ways that characterizing the “identity” of a culture is itself a politically and ideologically charged issue. The contradictions operate both “outside”, in society, and “inside” the heads of each individual. Since identity shifts according to how the subject is addressed or represented, identification is not automate, but can be won or lost. Turkey is considered an Islamic country with a homogenous culture by the Western scholars and it is a common practice to ignore the diversity of the population and the presence of a modern society within, that is the backbone of the modern Turkish State. The increasing threat of the Islamic lifestyle started what is known as the Gezi Uprising incidents in 2013 and the autocratic handling of the situation caused an occult fault line in the society to surface, though very peacefully and create a new cultural arena. The International Istanbul Biennial is a contemporary art exhibition, held every two years in Istanbul since 1987. The Biennial is organized by the Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts, an initiative to situate Istanbul firmly among the cultural and art capitals of the world. The number of visitors for the Istanbul Biennial showed a three-fold increase following the incidents of the Gezi Uprising that year and has remained at similar high numbers since then, through two additional Biennials.


Case study of Philippi Park: The dialogue between the community and public sector through the vehicle of heritage in Philippi’s cultural landscape, presented through a Viable System Model with aim in the continuous sustainability of the region

Authors: Gesthimani Tsouroukidou, Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics, Greece and Yorgos Tsakalos, M.Sc System Engineering & Management , Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Civil Engineering, Greece

The preservation and sustainable development of cultural landscapes require the active involvement of local communities in planning and management. This paper examines a case study of a community-driven heritage project in Philippi, Greece, a recently listed Unesco World Heritage Site. Initiated by a multidisciplinary youth research team, “Opsometha eis Philippous”, and adopted by the inhabitants of the area, this project outlines and assesses the research findings of how a local community can cooperate and participate in the planning and development of a cultural landscape. “Opsometha eis Philippous” served as mediators between the local community and public bodies in order to encourage the means of a healthy dialog and ensure that this effort remains viable for future developments. Using various collaborative techniques, tools and workshops, “Opsometha eis Philippous” served as the intermediary between these cultural communities and operational bodies in manifesting this vision and giving it life. The study argues that adoption of a truly meaningful and sustainable management process requires educational and immersive techniques for the local community but also specific tools in order to viably communicate the civilians’ needs to the public sector. These immersive techniques and tools are subject to constant evaluation of the needs of the locals and the ways through which governmental bodies can address those needs. The appointment of a young multifaceted team of professionals serves an integral role in performing the continuous bridging of the values of the cultural landscape with those of its occupants, and also in facilitating the process of identifying the community’s needs and coupling them with resources, policies and support given by the government. Hence, conscious evaluation of the heritage development and management process, together with a decision to support the local community aspirations, constitute integral aspects of successful endorsement and implementation from the local community. The first phase outlines the roles of all encompassing stakeholders in their respective categories, and the second phase analyzes all tasks, tools and procedures as they progressively evolved through time, within the umbrella of the Viable System Model. The latter includes the case study of the “Philippi Park” as presented with the collection and analysis of empirical primary research. The results exemplified that the actions proved successful in securing community activation and helped interpret strategies through which an organization can diversify and manage a comparable project in sustainable development of a cultural landscape. Furthermore, the research portrayed an example of how the community can collaborate with research groups, non-governmental organizations, and public bodies, in order to achieve long term strategic planning for the improvement and expansion of its area. This initiative was further strengthened by the unprecedented decision of all seven municipalities of Philippi’s cultural landscape to collaborate, participate, allocate resources in the endorsement of this strategic plan and pave the road for the development of the cultural landscape. Thus far, all stages culminating to the creation of the project, in tandem with the techniques and tools deployed, set the stage for a healthy and viable dialogue between the community and its public bodies.


PART I. SESSION N°4 ABSTRACTS – Cultural management and policy education to tackle the ongoing transformations

Educational programmes for the development of entrepreneurial skills across Europe. Does the offer meet needs?

Author: Piotr Firych, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland

The proposed paper is based on outcomes of the European research led by international team in 2017. The research formed the introductory phase to the project titled ‘CONNECT / Connecting Audiences: European Alliances for Education and Training in Audience Development’ founded by EU (Erasmus+ Knowledge Alliances, http://connectingaudiences.eu/). One of the main challenges in implementing CONNECT on European level is merging all settings and needs specific for each national educational systems. To face this, the project consortium conducted a survey on programmes for the development of entrepreneurial and AD-related skills as well as detailed needs analysis of students and professionals working in cultural sector. The research was done with the use of desk research, online survey, IDI and FGI. The findings cover the overall educational practises related to audience development and entrepreneurship as well and the mentioned needs analysis in the 5 respective countries involved. These are namely: Denmark (with a broader perspective on the Nordic region), Spain, Italy, Poland and the UK. In general terms, the survey aimed to gather knowledge regarding each individual national context and draw a picture of the educational offer related to the mentioned areas in terms of similarities, differences, meaningful implications and challenges. This was to give a better understanding of the settings the CONNECT project is to be implemented in and empower its effectiveness in developing an unique educational programme (Twin-Track Programme) as a core result of the project. The paper concludes with broad-spectrum reflections with regard to cultural sector and its educational challenges and poses a question of the extend the actual offer meets different kind of needs.


The institutionalization of Artistic and Cultural Education in France and its experimentation in the festivals’ sphere

Authors: Emmanuel Ethis, Université d’Avignon, France; Damien Malinas, Université d’Avignon, France; Lauriane Guillou, Sciences de l’information et de la communication. Équipe Culture et Communication, Université d’Avignon, France

France is developing and experiencing a crossed educational and cultural policy called Artistic and Cultural Education (ACE) elaborated upon three intertwined principles: learning artistic knowledge, practicing arts, and encountering artists. The country has a tradition of public support to art, culture and education that is part of the Popular education’s legacy (30’s). Many festivals have already brought ACE onto their agenda like the Avignon Festival that stands up for culture as a civil service, a mean of empowerment through art and education. This study would analyze ACE’s dynamics and institutionalization from the shifts it is built on, and question why festivals are relevant places to experience such educational policies. Our theoretical framework would combine Durkheimian sociology to study ACE’s institutionalization through time, Paul Ricoeur’s work about the presence of past in the present to explore the current relation to the past and how continuity is or not intended, and sociology of culture to analyze how ACE supports self-empowerment through art in a festival-going context where audiences develop their expertise, discover artistic fields and debate collectively. If the Avignon Festival is anchored in the French cultural landscape, its impact is also broader given its programming and search for an international artistic legacy. The Festival is committed to transmit its political inheritance through generations. Qualitative and quantitative resources produced by inquiries about ACE within spectators’ life path would help to apprehend the Festival’s changes concerning cultural democratization. Because culture is part of our identity construction, no children are unapproachable when it comes to art and culture: therein lays a meaningful shift for such policies. Besides, this is a shared view with the Avignon Festival founded on the idea that culture is for everyone, an aid for emancipation and sense of community to share a common legacy, regardless of social and economic backgrounds.


Communication between the stakeholders in cultural policies: Case of Cycle Art without Borders, Ivan Meštrović Museums – Meštrović Gallery, Split

Authors: Nansi Ivanišević, Department for education and culture, State administration office in Split – Dalmatian county, Croatia; Vesna Bulić Baketić, Prokultura – Cultural policies observatory, Split, Croatia; Latica Krasnić, Prokultura – Cultural policies observatory, Split, Croatia

The qualitative empirical research of an adequate functioning of cultural policies in Croatia realised within the state administration aimed to investigate the hypothesis whether the communication among various stakeholders within cultural, education and tourist sectors is inadequate and sporadic and does not, therefore, contribute to potential and necessary partnership in the area of valorisation of heritage. Research variables were: stakeholder coordination among ministries, vertical communication within the system; horizontal communication at the regional and local level; coordination between included stakeholders with eventual recognition of the role of deconcentrated administration; functioning of the budget as the main instrument in realization of public policy goals; possibility of systemic improvements and capacity building in administration functioning; ways of building competences about the importance and the role of culture from the point of view of experts within state administration in charge of its popularisation. Case study of the cycle Art without Borders shows a different example of a good practice which demonstrates how the organization process and the communication can function. During the concerts of the cycles the museum became a concert hall for students of music schools of the region. Through a very extensive approach and continuous rise of the number of included partners music schools from other parts of Croatia and The Academy of Arts in Split also joined. In accordance with the main goals of the project, the museum subsequently became an international stage hosting guests from Europe and the US. Well lead communication and a consistent approach enabled the fulfilment of otherwise financially challenging project that significantly adds to the popularisation of art and culture, as well as international promotion of Split and Croatia. In accordance with the results of this study, this work also suggests the measures for improving the communication between culture, education and tourism based on a constant education process of all included partners.


Shifting the Romanian cultural perspective through design and design education to address a transformative society

Authors: Alexandra Ghioc, “George Enescu” National University of Arts, Romania and Radu Carnariu, Octav Bancila National College of Arts, Romania; Radu Carnariu, Octav Bancila National College of Arts and visual artist, Romania

This research paper focuses on finding new methodological approaches/strategies regarding the real contextual possibilities of implementing and managing the theoretical framework of the design process in order to detect, solve, answer, ameliorate or influence various explicit social, cultural or political disfunctions aiming a relevant response to the effects of urgent global issues such as migration, terrorism, pollution, preserving natural resources and recycle/upcycle processes or poverty. In Romania design was applied in both theoretical and practical fields in a questionable way. In the communist period design was deficient in terms of nomenclature, research and education. Moreover, in the transition years 1990-2000 the Romanian emerging efforts to synchronize with the European design led to imitate or reproduce various international trends struggling for its own identity. Nowadays, Romanian design culture strives to be acknowledge not only for its aesthetics or formal qualities but for it’s processual complexity and versatility in application. Even though design is often seen only as a marketing tool in order to increase the turnover of a company, the contemporary Romanian practice design starts to become a more prominent and decisive vector of influence in the material culture’s global context. By these means we consider that Romania is the proper cultural and educational environment to apply new theories and methodologies such as design thinking, critical design, relational design or social innovation in order to achieve sustainable results. For these objectives to be accomplished we are interested in improving both the Romanian design curriculum and the institutional connections with Romanian Design Council and with local creative emerging communities (NGOs, art studios, producers or artisans). Important steps were made in education methodology towards social design by choosing such subjects as BA or MA thesis and prototyping then through collaborations with institutions like “Design cel Mare” (Iasi),” Instalart” (Bucharest), “UpsideDown” (Iasi), “Hubrica” and exhibiting the results for cultural and social awareness, through workshops, seminars, exhibitions, which underlines a real mentality shift.


PART I. SESSION N°5 ABSTRACTS – Cultural management and policy education to tackle the ongoing transformations

Social design thinking as a method for cultural managers (teaching demonstration)

Author: Maria Bäck, Arcada UAS, Finland

In the curricula for the Cultural Management bachelor education in Arcada UAS we are working with different themes aiming for the future work environment. One of the themes is about innovation and conceptualisation with several courses regarding the topic from different points of view. One of the courses is called “Productification in the Creative Sector” and the aim of the course is that the student can manage commercialisation and innovation. One of the methods used in the course (5ECTS) is using the competition Student Design Award which is held by the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. It is the oldest design competition for students (since 1924) The students are working with real briefs from the industry and are using skills from previous courses and also getting new ones in order to make solutions for different problems. The skills acquired during this course are building concepts for the creative sector and how to deal with IPR (trademarks i.e)


Marketing the intangible cultural heritage: exploring consumer’s motivation in attending a theatre performance

Author: Raluca Radoi, The National University of Theatre and Film Bucharest, Romania

In a world of continuous transformations, theatre remains one of our most valuable intangible cultural heritage. However, we cannot ignore anymore the fact that the contemporary way of life can be considered a strong motivation for the decreasing theatre audience participation or more precise for a stagnation of audience spreading. This paper aims to identify theatre-goers motivation in attending a performance in order to help the cultural institutions to improve their marketing strategies and, thus, to secure theatre’s place in our heritage, for the future. Motivation of the consumer in the performing arts sector has been an intriguing subject for many researchers as several studies in this area were conducted, all in the context of building audiences for the future (Walmsley, 2011, Osborne and Rentschler, 2010, Hume and Mort, 2008). Nevertheless, in the expanding cultural field, widely keeping up with the societal changes, performing arts are facing the difficulty to raise consumer’s interest. That is why we should focus on bringing again motivation into discussion, a key element of the consumer behaviour. The purpose of this research is examining consumer’s motivation in attending a theatre performance by exploring the implications that the core product and its peripheral attributes have for both frequent attenders and occasional attenders. Having motivation standing at the core of the consumers’ decision-making process (Colbert, 2001), a conceptual scheme must be proposed in order to determine the balance between the actual theatre performance and the complementary services that motivate the consumer. This will result into a motivational matrix that shall influence the theatre experience improvement. In other words, nowadays, the once simple theatre-goer status has evolved into the cultural consumer more broaden definition. For some time now, he is referred at as a decision-making individual, having the capacity of influencing trends in the cultural field. This is not just an artificial terminology, but also an open phenomenon imposing a new attitude of the arts managers and marketers in relation to their recipients. The study proposes a quantitative research of the motivation of frequent attenders to occasional and beyond.


Cultural Policies for building an efficient state, cultural, artistic and educational infrastructure for training in arts and culture in lifelong learning

Authors: Evgeni Velev, SULSIT University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Bulgaria; Denitsa Krumova,  SULSIT University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Bulgaria; Kaloyan Donchev, SULSIT University of Library Studies and Information Technologies, Bulgaria

The study attempts to analyze basic tendencies in the development of the educational system and the educational and professional qualification structure in the context of training in Arts and Culture at national, sectoral and regional level. The emphasis is on the structural elements of the educational system, the analysis of the processes within the subsystems of secondary and higher education specifically, and on highlighting the and prospects in both spheres. The development of the educational system as a whole and the development of the two subsystems in particular, as well as the tendencies and challenges standing upon them, are evaluated, using comparison to other similar indicators for the EU Member States. This leads to the enhancement of the market orientation in the sector and the improvement of the connections between the individual elements of the business system, which motivates the participants in the educational process to overcome technological challenges, connected to their professional studies. The enhancement of adaptability and competitiveness of the participants is possible through the sustainable development of the system itself and the educational and professional qualification structure, and through achieving a higher level of training and qualification of the employees.


PART I. SESSION N°6 ABSTRACTS – Cross-sectoral approach to cultural heritage sustainability and heritage-led innovation

The unbearable sustainability of cultural heritage: index of cultural heritage sustainability in conflict and war regions

Authors: Marilena Vecco, Burgundy School of Business – Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France,  Andrej Srakar, Institute for Economic Research (IER), Ljubljana, and Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

We shed light on the implications of wars and conflicts on cultural heritage’s sustainability in the Middle East, focussing on the development of a cultural heritage sustainability index for regions threatened by conflicts, something not done so far in the literature. Literature attests to the adverse effects of war and conflicts on the sustainability of cultural heritage, but so far no empirical study has been given. The hypotheses we test – H1: War and economic instability indicators highly affect the sustainability of cultural heritage. H2: Countries with less sustainability of cultural heritage sites correspond to the countries, most affected by war conflicts. H3: The sustainability of cultural heritage sites is strongly related to general indicators of cultural heritage and cultural development. Source of the database used: Investing in Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue (UNESCO, 2009). We include 6 dimensions of indicators: General development; Cultural heritage site accountability; General indicators of cultural development; Tourism; Protection of natural ecosystem; Political dimension. We use SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) technique of MIMIC (Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes) to model cultural heritage sustainability as a latent construct. Due to endogeneity in the model we use a newly-developed IV MIMIC correction (Srakar et al., 2017), which is the first usage of instrumental variables in MIMIC modelling and an additional methodological novelty. The article encourages a reflection on the implications of wars and conflicts on cultural heritage with a special focus on the Middle East. An index of cultural heritage sustainability relating to conflicts is developed and the ranking of countries studied in detail. All three initial hypotheses are verified. We address an issue which is hardly measurable – many phenomena in cultural heritage escape precise measurement which brings even more importance to our approach and has important implications for heritage policies and future research on cultural heritage.


Cultural diplomacy from Lula to Dilma: Brazilian dynamism in the field of International identities

Authors: Clarice Ferreira Menezes, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Leonardo de Souza Boy, University of Paris-Saclay, France

At the turn of the 21st century, Brazil gained ground in the international scene due to the re-alignment of domestic and external affairs during Lula da Silva and Dilma Roussef governments. The strategy was marked by a new perspective on the projection of the image of the country, in which cultural plurality became the flagship of the Brazilian Foreign Policy to achieve positions of power, prestige and influence in the world. The Brazilian cultural diplomacy was restructured as a primary strategy. This study aims to analyze the strategies of cultural diffusion promoted by Brazil during Lula (2003-2011) and Dilma (2011-2016) government in relation to the new approaches of the international insertion of the country by diffusing its culture abroad. In light of the rapid cultural internationalization of Brazil in the last decade, this approach combines cultural heritage in line with the contemporary international relations. Therefore, the study about the Brazilian foreign policy was performed in order to investigate the agents responsible for promoting the country abroad and identifying the cultural dissemination activities carried out in the period. The work contains documentary, bibliographic analysis and interviews conducted in 2014; 2015 and 2017 with go-betweens involved in the process. This paper has clearly shown a re-thinking of the international insertion of Brazil overseas from the 2000s.


Co-creating toward creative ecology in the Cultural Capital of Taiwan – the case of the cultural and creative industries transformation in the Tainan City

Author: Hsiao-Ling Chung, Graduate Institute of Creative Industries Design, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan

The recent focus of Cultural and Creative Industries (CCI) policy in Taiwan has been centered on developing urban infrastructure to encourage CCI entrepreneurship and community-based economy. Such development signifies increased and interrelated complexity among key stakeholders, involving city government authorities, industry enterprises and local communities, which is termed as ‘CCI Policy Urban Network’ (CPUN) in this government-funded research. The goal of this mixed approach study center on developing the co-creation paths and strategic action plans to transform the existing CCI development approach in the city of Tainan toward nurturing a sustainable creative ecology in the city context. As one of the six municipality cities in Taiwan, Tainan is the city with the earliest cultural roots situated in southern Taiwan. The city saw Chinese settlement since the late 16th century, and it was the trading site under Dutch colony during 1624 to 1662, and later the Chinese Ming and Qing eras and the Japanese establishments. Tainan was the capital when the Qing Dynasty regained control of Taiwan in 1683, and remained the political, cultural and economic center of Taiwan until 1885, when the capital was moved to Taipei. Tainan takes great pride in its highest concentration of cultural assets among other cities in Taiwan, and it stresses the ‘Cultural Capital, Creative City’ in branding its recent CCI development. Empirically, the research methods include the following: the face-to-face in-depth interviews, a focus group forum with key CPUN stakeholders, on-line questionnaire survey with CCI enterprises and consumers, and a co-creation workshop were conducted sequentially. Theoretically, the four analytical properties of creative ecology, which are diversity, change, learning and adaptation, are applied to examine the emerging themes of the CPUN dynamics in Tainan and its conditions for nurturing a creative ecology. The case of cultural capital of Taiwan reveals a complicated yet adaptable co-creation path for its transformation toward a more inclusive and healthier creative ecology.


New technologies in performing arts – applications for the fields of cultural marketing and artistic education

Author: Cristina Nichimiș, The National University of Theatre and Film, Romania

The paper aims to analyze and record a series of new technologies applications in the field of performing arts and specifically for the activity of cultural marketing and artistic education. The subject is one of increasing interest in the performing arts field on an international level, given the substantial changes that the new technologies have brought in the cultural consumption behavior and in the interaction between the cultural institutions and their public. The study is based on several cultural consumption studies (both national and international) and gathers data through a desk research about two complementary issues: the first one regarding the arts & technology programs and projects currently under development in around 50 of the largest cultural institutions in Europe (especially in the field of opera, theatre and dance) and the second one about 50 of the most relevant professionals figures working in cultural organizations (public and private) that either coordinate or implement projects in the marketing and artistic education field that have a high digital/new technology component. The data gathered helps to have an overview of the potential applications, methods and practices used internationally, as well as the limits and challenges faced in implementing and developing such practices projects. The main objective of this research is to contribute to a better understanding of the potential uses of new technologies in the marketing and artistic education fields, by mapping and sorting in several categories the different potential formats of these projects/activities and the area of application, and in terms of the skills and competencies needed in order to implement such projects in a cultural institution. The paper could act as a guideline for professionals and/or institutions looking to realize these projects and as a base for further research into the limits of new technologies in the communications and artistic education fields.


PART II. SESSION N°1 ABSTRACTS – From cultural heritage to heritage communities – Cultural and managerial transformations

Places and people of memory. First World War Heroes’ monuments as heritage landmarks

Author: Anda Becuț Marinescu, National Institute for Cultural Reseach and Training, Romania

At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Romanian nation was an ideal rather than a reality, so it had to be built by the political and cultural elites with the help of symbols that would awaken in the people’s consciousness the feeling of belonging to a linguistic, historical and cultural community, to common origins. The monuments dedicated to war heroes are places of collective memory, which enable the community to express its connection to its ancestors in the form of rituals and commemoration; they are the symbols of the local and national identity, but are at the same time, landmarks, places which belong to the community through the social life they have at present. The biography of the monuments dedicated to heroes begins in the inter-war period, immediately after the First World War. This initiative occurred in numerous places around the world, especially in Europe and in the territories belonging to the British Empire. Our research shall point out the material and symbolical particularities which turn each monument dedicated to heroes into an original artwork which preserves the specificity of the local community, while also evincing the common elements that directly refer to the Romanian nation, to the national culture and history. The research instruments used were the non-structured and semi-structured interviews, photographic documentation and participant observation. The research objectives were to identify the place of the monuments dedicated to heroes in the community’s life, the cultural biography of the monuments and the way in which the collective and individual memory are activated in relation to the historical events to which the monuments refer. The results of the research highlighted the fact that the degree knowledge of the significance and the social life of the heroes’ monuments depend on the locals’ personal relation with such heroes. Thus, the more people in the community took part in the war, who lived in those painful times or have memories about loved ones who perished on the battlefield, the more willing becomes the community to celebrate the heroes and to keep their memories alive with the help of the monuments and religious ceremonies.


Cultural Cooperatives as Participatory Governance Tool – Reviewing the Idea from East-European Perspective

Author: Svetlana Hristova, South-West University, Bulgaria

While the topic of participatory governance of cultural heritage and more generally, of culture, is a buzzword in the European cultural practices and policies, cultural cooperatives are broadly considered to be organizational forms belonging more to the past then to the present. Moreover, cooperatives in Eastern Europe are even less popular nowadays as they have been compromised during the period of socialism. However, in the age of social media democracy, artivism, “culturalization of economy” and Culture 3.0 (Sacco 2014), cooperatives in the sphere of culture and cultural heritage are regaining new ‘raison d’être’: they become increasingly powerful tools for more effective management of shared resources (cultural assets, tangible and intangible heritage, but also social and cultural capital in P. Bourdieu’s terms). The current research aims to delineate the specificity of the raising cultural co-operative sector in Bulgaria by mapping the cultural cooperative landscape in Eastern Europe and analyzing its future perspectives from the viewpoint of both – the lessons from its historic development and the value added of its present international connectedness.


From the Schizofrenia of an Identity to a Cosmic ID

Authors: Giada Pieri, MED – Mediterranean Explore Diversity, Italy; Rosaria Cerlino, MED – Mediterranean Explore Diversity, Italy

From the Schizofrenia of an Identity to a Cosmic ID: the construction of a European identity, starting from the reconstruction of one’s own identity through creativity, is a new educational need in which we strongly believe, considering that actually Europe is a mosaic of global selfishness and nationalism. Because Europe is facing a deep crisis of identity, culture and, consequently, of education, we would like to introduce a bottom up ID construction path based on duality: every country’s identity/traditions vs. intercultural/global identity. We would like to introduce a new school subject called “European Education” : mostly young generations have not only a little sense of global culture but a very little sense of their collective identity too. When two or more cultures meet, for each entity it’s very important to know “who he/she is” otherwise a difficult neverending struggle can start. Our starting point is the theory of paradoxes that are stairs that rise and fall depending on where you look at them: starting from affirmations that make sense, once confronted, a contradictory conclusion can arise. Our approach will be participative: students, different members of family, friends, neighbours will be engaged, but it could be shared worldwide. The creativity workshop is based on ID Construction while the cultural workshops are based on local and global traditions. Considering that the evolution of educational policies must be based on aggregation, we will be helped by new technologies and gamification to spread our educational view, creating and using an App called “hAPPyID” Our main expectations are: to create the chased identity following dreams for a future where each one can find his own root; to strenghten the “glocal” way of behaving and thinking as a European cultural horizon; to arise intercultural empathy to face everyday conflicts.


PART II. SESSION N°2 ABSTRACTS – From cultural heritage to heritage communities – Cultural and managerial transformations

Local cultural policies for regional revitalization in Japan – Challenge for ‘local and global city’

Author: Kiyoshi Takeuchi, Tottori University, Japan

Recently, cultural policies by local governments are required to contribute to overcoming population decline (depopulation) and revitalizing regional economy in Japan. Japanese society is trying to secure the sustainability of the local people’s lives with the beginning of population decline and without economic growth like once. Almost all local governments in Japan have formulated their own strategies for regional revitalization all at once under the initiative of the central government until March, 2016. In this paper, I will focus on cultural policies in those local strategies and examine whether they can fulfill the expected role of overcoming depopulation and revitalizing regional economy. In addition, I will carefully observe whether vitalization and sustainability of cultural activities are well considered in the strategy. Specifically, this article addresses a case of a small city in Japan named Toyooka City. The city Government states the slogan in their general strategy; “Local and global city Toyooka”. The mayor decided to renovate a public building for art center. The art center locates in a hot spring site once a famous novelist had stayed. It is used for artist in residence program including foreign artists. The city has a historical site, tradition of making bags and good environment for live together with storks. The art center is the base for integrating these local attractivenesses and promote them globally. This case will be a model of regional revitalization and the information about the current situation and the efforts in Japan that entered a new stage of population decline society will be able to make sense as a reference for the European countries and the others.


Using counterfactual thinking to increase organizational resiliency and strengthen cultural placekeeping (teaching demonstration)

Author: Leah Hamilton, University of Kentucky (Arts Administration), United States

The increased frequency of natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and data breaches across the globe has transformed the role of the cultural manager. They must now be prepared to protect lives as well as tangible and intangible cultural heritage during and after an emergency. Using counterfactual thinking is an innovative approach in cultural management education that strengthens organizational resiliency and cultural placekeeping. It is proven to increase student knowledge and ability to preserve and maintain places of culture in the wake of a disaster. In order to teach cultural managers to respond and recover effectively during and after an emergency, they must be able to achieve two key learning objectives: identify modern threats relevant to places of culture, and create cross-sector community networks for increased resiliency. This teaching demonstration shows participants how to use counterfactual thinking as a method of achieving these learning objectives. Counterfactual thinking—the process of creating alternate realities based on past events—harnesses the imagination in a rational, productive way. The demonstration uses a series of exercises to engage participants in considering the possibilities, not probabilities, of potential events that could affect cultural sites. Exercises integrate sociological theory regarding how people can act and react to disasters, as well as cross-sector influences on cultural sites including natural, socio-political, educational, and economic environments. Using counterfactual thinking to prepare for unexpected events transitions to other content areas in cultural management education, including shaping cultural policy and audience development techniques. Counterfactual thinking has shown to have positive effects in changing human behavior in other fields including social psychology, economics, business, and communications. The skills needed to prepare for unimaginable emergencies transcends current expectations in cultural management education. Program curricula must transform to include the impact of natural and social disaster phenomena on places of culture.


International approaches in education to cultural heritage in Global South countries

Authors: Elena Borin, Burgundy School of Business, Université Bourgogne Franche Comté, France; Simeng Chang, Burgundy School of Business, Université Bourgogne Franche Comté, France; Luca Rossato, University of Ferrara, Italy

This paper aims at understanding the potential of cross-sectoral and international joint projects in education for promoting different approaches to cultural heritage preservation and enhancement as well as culture-led development in Global South countries. More specifically, the objective is to investigate how international educational programs mixing European and Asian students are influencing the perception of cultural heritage preservation and cultural heritage-led development in in South-Asia: are these programs re-proposing European models of cultural-led development or are stimulating innovative and tailor-made approaches to development through cultural heritage preservation and enhancement? Education to cultural heritage is a topic that have been studied according to several perspectives. Among the most significant streams, academics has focused on the importance of integrating cultural heritage teaching in formal curriculum (Passagua & Williams, 2012; Smith, 2011; Simşek, Elitok, & Kesici, 2013), focusing in particular on primary education. Researchers not only analyzed the benefit of integrating cultural heritage education as specific teaching subject, but also underlined how cultural heritage could be considered as an underlying theme to promote better understanding of other subjects (Abayao, 2006). Recently, the topic of cultural heritage education was related to the educational ecosystem/ecological approach (Colwell, 1985; Goodland, 1984): according to this approach, educational organizations are considered as part of a complex networks of diverse factors and subjects that influence and shape the learning process (Ennis, 1992). Educational ecosystems are context-dependent and the quality of an educational program is evaluated also in light of the value exchange between different members of the ecosystem (Kirikova et al., 2010); local responsibilities in developing curricula are considered crucial (Niemi, 2014). In the framework of this research, significant investigations have underlined how input from external actors can stimulate new developments of the ecosystems. In particular joint international educational initiatives could stimulate new approaches for preserving and enhancing cultural heritage (Simandiraki, 2006), unlocking the potential for cultural-heritage led development. This approach has been widely studied in different fields and mainly in western countries, but needs to be further explored with specific reference to education to cultural heritage preservation and in emerging countries (Bjønness, 1994), especially since the recent increase of tourist flows poses threats to local heritage (Dallen, 2009). What are the features of this educational approach in dynamic and changing contexts such as those of global south countries is a subject that needs to be further investigated (Kappagoda, 2002). This paper aims at addressing this research gap. In order to address our research questions, the paper presents a longitudinal analysis of an educational project developed over 7 years and jointly carried out by staff and students coming from an Italian University and an Indian university (University of Ferrara and CEPT University of Ahmedahbad) to study the cultural heritage of two Indian cities in order to make some proposals for preservation and enhancement of different cultural heritage sites.


PART II. SESSION N°3 ABSTRACTS – Cultural management and policy education – Teaching and technology transformations

Creative Arts Marketing third edition: Using cases and content face to face and online (teaching demonstration)

Authors: Terry O’Sullivan, The Open University Business School, United Kingdom and Catherine O’Sullivan, COS, United Kingdom; Catherine O’Sullivan, Independent Researcher and Consultant

Main content of the teaching demonstration (incl. learning objectives): Whether in academic or CPD contexts, arts management educators need to design for physical and virtual classrooms, and for combinations thereof. This session takes material from the 2018 edition of the authors’ textbook Creative Arts Marketing as the starting point to explore the respective strengths of face to face and online to promote and generate engaging and effective learning opportunities. After successful participation in this workshop you will: understand learning design for arts management education (face to face and/or online); create new collaborative opportunities with your learners; increase the efficiency of your arts management education work. The new and innovative angle of the teaching method: this participative session offers the opportunity to share new insights and practical solutions for arts management educators. It introduces basic learning design principles so that educators can refine, re-use and share successful learning events in a way which enhances their own professional development. Applicability of the teaching method to different course contexts and educational levels: the session is aimed at arts management educators whether in academic or professional settings. The teaching method is suitable for undergraduate and taught masters courses in arts management, and continuing professional development for new and aspiring managers in arts and cultural organisations.


New technologies in education – tools, needs and digital behaviour

The panel will consist of presentations and discussion on the role of digital tools in the education and practice of cultural management and policy. What are the trends in use of ICT, online social media, software and other digital tools in our field? What do we really use and need? Do we need to teach our students how to control specific apps? Is it the typology of the software currently offered on the market? Is it the philosophy, nature, potential and risks of the digital world? In a close interaction with the audience the panellists will look for some of the answers and further questions and challenges of digitalization relevant for our sector.


PART II. SESSION N°4 ABSTRACTS – The evaluation tool for the Congress and the General Assembly

This panel will discuss about further development of the evaluation of the ENCATC Congress and General Assembly. Each year, this is a core activity of our network and we would like to test and implement aa new method to measure this strategic moment and know more about members expectations and satisfaction.